The Tribe of Levi Are


Scattered in Israel

by Peter Salemi

The tribe of Levi are the priestly tribe of Israel. These were scattered in Israel to teach Israel the laws of God. They also conducted the sacrifices in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem. Do the Levites today continue to do the task that Almighty God gave them of being teachers of the Law of God, and to Shepherd over his people Israel?

The Tribe of Levi

The sons of Levi are "Gershon, Kohath, and Merari." (Gen 46:11). The sons of these three sub-tribes are, "The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families...And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years....And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations." (Ex 6:17-19).  Moses was descendant of the Kohathites, "And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years." (v.20). The other sub-tribes of Kohath are, "And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri....And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri....And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar....And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korhites." (vv.21-24). Moses was a Levite. Levi showed a tremendous Zeal for God, so it is no surprise that God chose out of the Levites, Moses to lead the people out of Bondage and be a judge over them.

Simeon and Levi

Levi along with Simeon seem to have an incredible zeal to settle matters by the sword. In Genesis, we read, "And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males...And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I being few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house" (34:25, 30). The characteristic of Zeal to settle with the sword was to be carried on into the "latter days" for both Simeon and Levi. Jacob prophesied, "Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.

"O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.

"Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel." (Gen 49:5-7). Here Jacob prophesied to scatter these two tribes, because united would bring about incredible cruelty to the world if that were to happen. In the habitations of Levi would be instruments of cruelty. This prophecy is for the latter days. Jacob connects Levi's old ways, and says it will carry on throughout his history, and history reveals this to be true! God chose Levi to perform the sacrifices in the Temple and Tabernacle for the people of Israel. These instruments involved would be all the sacrificial tools necessary to perform such tasks.

Zeal for God, and Ministers

When Moses came down from Mount Sinai and the Israelites were engaged in the worshipping of the golden calf, Moses asked, "Who is on the LORD'S side? let him come unto me" (Ex 32:26). It was Levi that came to him, "And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." Then Moses assigned them to put to death all those who committed the idolatrous crime in Israel to be executed (vv.27-28). Of course with the history of Levi and his matters to settle this with the sword, it is no wonder that they did it with such zeal. They were also a perfect choice for the task of butchering animals for the sacrifices.

Another episode is the sin of Baal-peor in Numbers 25. Again Israel is sinning in God's sight with the daughters of Moab, and it was a Levite and his zeal for God that stayed the plague, " And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from among the congregation, and took a javelin in his hand;

"And he went after the man of Israel into the tent, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." (vv.7-8). Again the Levite settling matter by the sword. But he was allowed to do so because only the "Judges" (v.5), who were the government in Israel were allowed to do so, and he was one of those judges. God then blessed Levi because of their zeal and said, "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

"Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath away from the children of Israel, while he was zealous for my sake among them, that I consumed not the children of Israel in my jealousy.

"Wherefore say, Behold, I give unto him my covenant of peace:

"And he shall have it, and his seed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood; because he was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Israel." (vv.10-13). This covenant is again spoken of by God in Malachi, "And ye shall know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that my covenant might be with Levi, saith the LORD of hosts.

"My covenant was with him of life and peace; and I gave them to him for the fear wherewith he feared me, and was afraid before my name.

"The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from iniquity.

"For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts." (2:4-7). The Levites were God's messengers. Their job was to Teach the Law of God, and turn many to righteousness. The Levites were Israel's ministers, "And Moses said unto Korah, Hear, I pray you, ye sons of Levi: Seemeth it but a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to himself to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister unto them?" (Numbers 16:8-9). These were scattered all over Israel to teach and preach the law of God, "Levites that taught all Israel" (2 Chron 35:3). "And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one...They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law:" (Deut 33:8,10). Moses' prophecy has provided us with clues as to where to find Levi today (more below).

No Inheritance in the Land

Jacob prophesied that Levi would be "scattered" in Israel. But, also, God said that they would have no land to inherit as well, "But the Levites shall do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall bear their iniquity: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, that among the children of Israel they have no inheritance...Wherefore Levi hath no part nor inheritance with his brethren; the LORD is his inheritance, according as the LORD thy God promised him." (Num 18:23; Deut 10:9). Instead the Levites were to live in cities within the borders of the different tribes of Israel. "for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel." (Lev 25:33; Num 35:2).  The Levitical cities are listed in Joshua 19-21 and 1 Chronicles 6.

Musicians, Shepherds, and Temple Guards

Other characteristics of Levi are found in 1 Chronicles 6, 9, and 15. Many of the Levites were singers, and played instruments before the Lord. Others were shepherds over the flocks that were to be sacrificed. Some were warriors that became temple guards as well.

Now, the chief instruments are, "And David spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers with instruments of musick, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding, by lifting up the voice with joy...Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting, and with sound of the cornet, and with trumpets, and with cymbals, making a noise with psalteries and harps" (I Chronicles 15:16, 28). We know what harps, cornets, trumpets, and cymbals are, but what are Psalteries? Strong's Concordance gives the number 5035 for PSALTERY. The definition is: "nebel; a SKIN BAG for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having a body of like form): -bottle, pitcher, psaltery, vessel, viol."  Bagpipes are an "airtight reservoir that can hold air and can be used to regulate its flow, enabling the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary widely, but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs, sheep, and cows." (Wikipedia "Bagpipes" emphasis added).  Bagpipes are played mainly in SCOTLAND today. Are the Scots part of the  Levites?

"And David spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers with instruments of musick, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding, by lifting up the voice with joy...Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting, and with sound of the cornet, and with trumpets, and with cymbals, making a noise with psalteries and harps" (I Chronicles 15:16, 28).

The Time of Captivity

Levi was scattered all over Israel, therefore we must conclude that Levi was taken with the House of Israel during the Assyrian invasions as well as the Babylonian invasions that took place over 100 years after, that took the House of Judah away. The Bible records the invasions:

"In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria...And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day...[and] the cities of the Medes " (2Kings 15:29; I Chron 5:26; 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). In the Parallel account in 1 Chronicles 5:26, the reason why Naphtali was not mentioned, is for the simple reason that the whole chapter was dedicated to the genealogies of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, so the writer parenthetically wrote in what happened to those three tribes.

The Assyrian records comply, ": "The land of Bit-Humeria [Israel]...all of its people together with their goods I carried off to Assyria...Pakaha [Pekah], their king they disposed, and I places Ausi as King...and to Assyria I carried them" (Thomas, pp.17-18). As Assyria carried away the tribes of Israel, the Levites in these cities were also there, and were also carried away with them. 2 Kings 17:26-28 reveals a lack of priests in the land of Israel. This clearly shows the Levites were taken into captivity by the Assyrians. Also, in the time of Ezra, when he was looking for Levites (Ezra 8:15) to help build the temple of God in Jerusalem, he sent a letter to "Iddo the chief at the place Casiphia," (Ezra 8:17). This place according to "The most judicious commentators are agreed that by Casiphia, the Caspian mountains, between Media and Hyrcania, are intended; where, probably, the Nethinim were employed in working silver mines: כסף keseph, from which the word comes, signifies silver." (Clarke's Commentary). The same place where the Israelites were taken captive. Then there were the Levites of the Babylonian captivity of Judah as well.

The Tribes that Returned

The Bible records that a minority of Jews came back to the Promised land during the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. These came from the Babylonian captivity. The Bible records that the tribes that came back were from Judah, Benjamin and Levi.

Testimony of Ezra: God "stirred up the spirit" of King Cyrus the Great so he would permit the Jews to "build Him [God] a house at Jerusalem which is in JUDAH" (Ezra 1:1-2). But which tribes of Israel returned at that time to help build the Temple at Jerusalem? "Then the heads of the fathers' houses of JUDAH and BENJAMIN, and the priests and the LEVITES... arose to go up and build the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem" (v. 5).

A careful study of the rest of this book clearly reveals that those Israelites who were mentioned were only from the tribes of JUDAH, BENJAMIN and LEVI. These tribes ARE ISRAELITES, but not all ISRAELITES ARE JEWS. These three tribes make up the southern kingdom of JUDAH!

After Judah went into captivity, a contingent of Levites returned with the Jews to rebuild the Temple and Jerusalem (Ezra 1:5, Nehemiah 11:3-4). Scripture (especially, the books of Ezra and Nehemiah) and the brilliant Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus (c. 37-100 A.D.) tells us that some came back to Jerusalem from captivity, but many stayed back. As noted above Ezra was searching everywhere to find priests to rebuild the Temple of God, and even inquired of those of the Assyrian captivity! This shows that many did not come back!

Testimony of Nehemiah: "So I called a great assembly.... And I said to them [the Jews], 'According to our ability we have redeemed our JEWISH BRETHREN'.... Moreover there were at my table one hundred and fifty JEWS and rulers" (Neh. 5:7-8, 17). He also says, "And I found a register of the genealogy of those who had come up in the first return [from Babylonian captivity], and found written in it: 'These are the people who came back from the captivity, of those who had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away captive [to Babylon--NOT whom Shalmaneser or Sargon had carried to Assyria!], and who returned to Jerusalem and Judah [NOT Samaria and northern Israel], everyone to his own city" (7:5-6). Thus the Bible makes it very plain that those who returned were NOT descendants of the northern Ten Tribes who went into Assyrian captivity in the late 700s B.C. Rather, they were descendants of those Jews taken captive eastward to Babylonia in 586 B.C.

Why, then, does verse 73 say, "So the priests, the Levites... and ALL ISRAEL dwelt in their cities"? Some biblical scholars assume that "all Israel" here refers to all Twelve Tribes. But all of the Jews had not even returned--much less all of the ISRAELITES! So is there a different way to look at this? Yes--EVERY descendant of Israel (Jacob) is an ISRAELITE in the broad sense of the word! The JEWS who returned to the land of JUDAH traced their lineage back to the tribes of JUDAH, BENJAMIN and LEVI; therefore they all would have been "ISRAELITES." Clearly, when Nehemiah spoke of "all Israel," he meant all the descendants of Israel that were there at the time-- living in the land. And which "Israelites" would they have been? Almost exclusively those of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi!

When you read the books of Ezra and Nehemiah many people think that just because the word "Israel" is mentioned more times than the word "Jew," they come to the conclusion that all of Israel including the northern ten tribes returned. Let's test that theory. In Ezra 10:5 Ezra calls "all Israel" to swear an oath. Who is "all Israel" according to Ezra? All of Israel, was the Israel that was THERE AT THAT TIME! In verse 9 you read who gathered together for that oath, "...the men of JUDAH AND BENJAMIN GATHERED AT JERUSALEM..." This is "all Israel," the tribes that were there at that time!

Now these Jews who went back to the promised land were not all of the captivity. A large portion of Jews stayed behind. "Then rose up the chief of the fathers of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests, and the Levites, with all them whose spirit God had raised, to go up to build the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem" (Ezra 1:5; Neh 11:3-4). The "chief" or "Rulers" and the priests came back and were allowed to build Jerusalem and the temple. Notice what Josephus says, "The entire body of the people [the Ten Tribes] of ISRAEL remained in that country, wherefore there are but Two Tribes [Judah and Benjamin] in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the TEN TRIBES are beyond Euphrates till now [c. 100 A.D.], and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers" (Antiquities of the Jews, bk. 11, chap. 5, sec. 2, emphasis added). Josephus knew that the ten tribes never returned, and that even Judah, Benjamin and Levi, not all of them even returned to Palestine, but a small minority did, the rest were in Europe and Asia, meaning Asia Minor, including Babylon, Mesopotamia, central Turkey, etc...

Levi among Israel

During the time of Christ the Levites were among the Jews, part of the House or Kingdom of Judah, now called Judea. These priests were servicing in the Temple of God. John the Baptist father was among those who service in the Temple of God, "There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth...And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course...According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord. " (Luke 1:5, 8-9). The "course of Abijah" was continued on, this was established by David in the service of the Temple that was to be built by Solomon (1 Chronicles 24).

During that time, among the Israelites, that Josephus said dwelt "beyond the Euphrates" which was just an expression during his day that meant "Parthia." (LTTF, Collins p.257). Have you ever wondered why God sent "Magi" to see and give gifts to Christ? Who were these Magi?

During the time of Christ, the Parthian Empire had a royal blood line (The Arsacids), and a priesthood called (Magi). These were influential Parthians known as "Megistanes." At that time, "At the beginning of the first century A.D., the Parthians forced their king from his throne. In their search for a different kind of king, the Megistanes and their thousand-man mounted cavalry galloped into Jerusalem. When Herod learned that the Megistanes had arrived, he was 'disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him' (Matthew 2:3). The Greek word translated 'disturbed' is etarachtha and means 'to shake violently.' The kingmakers were on his doorstep and they were not looking for him."(article, "Who Were the Wise Men?" by Jeffery Donley, Ph.D). Rome and Parthia at that time were at peace, previously however, they were at war, and this shaky peace between the two rivals could of cause another war to break out, this is why Jerusalem was troubled.

Most Christmas scenes show 3 wise men at a manger, but the reality is, nowhere in the Bible does it say there were 3. History shows, "...Parthian history is clear that whenever the Megistanes made a journey, they were accompanied by 1,000 mounted cavalry. These Megistanes galloped thunderously into Jerusalem, and the entire city, along with their king, quaked in fear." (ibid).

Why did these Magi come to search for Christ, the son of David? It is well known that the Arsacids were descendants of the last king of Judah, Jehoiachin. In Babylon, "And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the year that he began to reign did lift up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah out of prison; And he spake kindly to him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon; " (2 Kings 25:27-28). Babylon would most likely to have set his throne over the Lost tribes of Israel, seeing that that were related, and so why not set one who is a kindred of those tribes whom Babylon inherited from Assyria. These became the Parthians. The rulers of Parthia were of the family of David. They were searching for one who would rule of the family of David, in Parthia, they knew of Christ. How? Many were converts to the Jewish religion and came to Jerusalem for the feast (Acts 2:9). They knew the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of the Messiah son of David.

Now during this episode with Christ, Collins notes, "...that God was working more closely with members of the Parthian ruling class than he was with the Jewish priests! This makes no biblical sense unless (A) that Parthians were descended from the exiles tribes of the House of Israel and (B) the Magi (Parthian Priests) were Levites" (LTTF, p.273). Fulfilling the prophecy, "David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of the house of Israel;

"Neither shall the priests the Levites want a man before me to offer burnt offerings, and to kindle meat offerings, and to do sacrifice continually.

"If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season;

"Then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a son to reign upon his throne; and with the Levites the priests, my ministers.

"As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites that minister unto me." (Jer 33 vv.17-18, 20-22). But what happened to the Levitical Priesthood? Does the throne of David, which exists today, and the Levitical Priesthood practicing sacrifices which were to cease (Daniel 9:27), are they to exist side by side? Many believe these two have to exist side by side, therefore the throne of David does not exist, since the Levitical Priesthood does not exist. So the throne of David is not in England. Is that True? (Read our Article on the Subject Here ).

So where did the Levites end up?

In 70 A.D. when the Temple was destroyed, the Levitical Priesthood became moot. The Sacrifices cease, and the New Testament as well as the old said that the sacrificial Law was to continue in the Sacrifice of Christ, therefore no need to sacrifice lambs and bullocks anymore. These Priests among the House of Judah, the Jews, were called Kohen (or Kohain; Hebrew: כֹּהֵן, "priest", pl. כֹּהֲנִים Kohanim) is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohanim are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron. After the destruction of the Second Temple and the suspension of sacrificial offerings, the formal role of priests in sacrificial services came to an end, whether temporary or permanent. However, Kohanim retain a formal and public ceremonial role in synagogue prayer services, which were established as a substitute for or reminder of the sacrifices themselves. In Judaism today, " It is the Kohen's privilege to be the first of the persons called to the reading of the Torah. Where a Kohen is present at the table he has the right to recite the grace after Meals, though he can waive this right if he chooses. Kohanim also recite the priestly blessing in the synagogue." (Rabbi Dr. Louis Jacobs article "Kohanim--Jewish 'Priests' Descendents of Aaron the priest enjoy special privileges). The bulk of the Levites today, "...[are] to be found amongst the Jewish People" (The Tribes, p.226, Davidy). But what about the House of Israel? Are there Levites among them today? The House of Israel we know are the British Commonwealth, the USA, and the peoples of Northwestern Europe. Jacob said he would scatter them in Israel?

Moses' Prophecy

Let's examine the prophecy of Moses concerning Levi.  "And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;

"Who said unto his father and to his mother, I have not seen him; neither did he acknowledge his brethren, nor knew his own children: for they have observed thy word, and kept thy covenant.

"They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine altar.

"Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands: smite through the loins of them that rise against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again." (Deut 33:8-11). 

Moses says, "Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one," The Holy One is Aaron, and his Priesthood. The  "Thummim and thy Urim" means "Lights" and "Perfections." These were two stones that the high Priest carried with him in his Breastplate (Ex 28:29-30). This was "that pledge, which the high priest wore upon his breast-plate, that the Lord would always give His people light to preserve His endangered right" (K&D Commentary). God's light, his word revealed to Israel through the Priesthood. So this was the blessing of the Priesthood that Levi would have. They proved themselves worthy for this task as Priests because of the sins of Israel, Levi stayed loyal to God.

Verse 9 refers to the time when Moses delayed coming down from the Mountain, and then when Israel sinned with the golden calf, the Levites slay their own brethren, the Israelites, without being a respecter of persons, but loved righteousness, and kept the covenant of God.

Verse 10 clearly shows that Levi will be teachers of the law of God in Israel. Pastors, teachers and preachers of the Bible.

Verse 11 means, "Which lay in tithes, firstfruits, &c. for the priests and Levites had no share in the division of the land; unless this can be understood of the cities and suburbs which were given them, or of houses and fields devoted, which fell unto them, or rather of their cattle, for the use of which they had suburbs appointed them; for otherwise in husbandry and merchandise they were not employed" The substance that Levi produces will be blessed, farmland, businesses which they produce will be a blessing.  "His strength was to be blessed by God's favouring the work of his hands," (Thomas Coke, A Commentary on the Holy Bible).  Also, the latter half of that scripture reveals, "wounding the loins of his enemies; those same enemies, of whom it is said, Psa_110:5. The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath." (ibid).  "destroying them with an utter destruction, so that they are not able to make any other efforts upon them" (Gill's Commentary). Striking the "loins" means the "the seat of their strength." (Barnes).

Levi's Migrations

Among the House of Israel as the migrated up through Europe from Asia, known as the Cimmerians, Celts, Galatians, Gauls, Galli, Goths, Parthians, Sacae or Scythians, in the area of "Lombardy" in ancient times it had been known as "Gallia Transpadana" and its one-time inhabitants according to Pliny (N.H. 3; 17) had been called "Laevi" or "Levi" (sic.). Ptolemy reported a people named "Levonii" in Scandinavia. (N.H. 2:10). These were "closely associated with the Angles who later conquered England" (Davidy, the Tribes). The Declaration of Arbroath 1320, reveals the migrations of the Scots. The Scots themselves say that "They journeyed from Greater Scythia."

These were described as "early allies in assaults against the Roman empire in Britain. From the mid 4th century Britain was being 'harassed in a never ending series of disasters' by the Picts, Scoti, Saxons...that culminated, in some areas, in new settlements, such as the Anglo Saxon take over of southern and eastern Britain" (Sally M. Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, p.10). With the establishment of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, these were driven into the wilderness, they found refuge in the Highlands of Scotland.

The Companion to British History by Charles Arnold-Baker, among the Scot Highlanders is the name on p.316 under "D" "(Dunlevi)." "The Celtic Scots (Highlanders) were a fierce and noble nation, and not easily conquered. Even in the 20th century wars, the Highlanders excelled others for bravery. If you want the bravest and noblest of men to protect a palace, get the Highlanders to do it. Just ask the Queen." (Who are the Levites? By Neville V. Stevens, p.20). Is it any wonder that the Levites made great temple guards in Jerusalem?

O.T.Food Laws-There is great similarity among the Scots and the Jews as well. The Food taboos of the Scots are very similar to the Mosaic food laws that the Israelites, especially for the Levites since it was their inheritance, and so it was kept vigorously. Donald A. Mackenzie, in "Scottish Folf Lore and Folk Life. Studies in Race, Culture, and Tradition", U.K., 1935, ch.1 shows many of the food laws among the Scots, and the Scots themselves claim to be like the Jews, even though had never been under the influence of the Jews. They just claim to be "like" the Jews or to contain Jewish elements (Procopious Vandals Gothis Wars 1:3).

John Toland (1714): "You know how considerable a part of the British inhabitants are the undoubted offspring of the Jews and how many worthy prelates of this same stock, not to speak of Lords and commoners, may at this time make an illustrious figure among us....A great number of 'em fled to Scotland which is the reason so many in that part of the Island have a remarkable aversion to pork and black puddings to this day, not to insist on some other resemblances easily observable.." ( Leon Poliakov ("The Aryan Myth", 1974 ch.3 p.44 ) quotes from John Toland, 1714, "Reasons for Naturalising the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland". John Toland also translated Josephus into English).

Levite Red Heads

A Midrash says that albino blond and red-haired types ("Bohakanim") were common amongst the Tribes of Simeon and Levi. One relatively recent and somewhat obscure commentator (Etz Yoseph, ca. 1845, on Midrash Tanchuma) opines that most of the high Priests had red or golden hair. At all events red-hair is fairly common amongst Jews. It could be that those who are Levites may have a slightly higher percentage of red-heads amongst them.   

Scotland has the highest proportion of redheads; 13% of the population has red hair and approximately 40% carries the recessive redhead gene. ("Scots ginger 'nuts' appeal". News: Scotland (BBC). Red hair is also fairly common amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations. According to an 11th century Arab chronicler Ibn-al-Balkhi, the Khazars who the Ashkenazi Jews descend from are: ". . . to the north of the inhabited earth towards the 7th clime, having over their heads the constellation of the Plough.  Their land is cold and wet.  Accordingly their complexions are white, their eyes blue, their hair flowing and predominately reddish, their bodies large and their natures cold.  Their general aspect is wild” (Koestler 1976, p. 19).  An Armenian writer described them as having “insolent, broad, lashless faces and long falling hair, like women.  (Koestler 1976, p. 20).  

In European culture, prior to the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.  In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art. Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair. The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia. (see Abel, Ernest L. (2001). Jewish genetic disorders: a layman's guide. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland. p. 229; The Jewish Persona in the European Imagination: A Case of Russian Literature, By Leonid Livak, (Stanford University Press 2010); Judas's Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art (9), 31–46, 1982, Melinnkoff R.M; Shakespeare and the Mediterranean: the selected proceedings of the International Shakespeare Association World Congress, Valencia, 2001, Theatres and Performances, (University of Delaware Press, 2004), page 40; Jewish hearts: a study of dynamic ethnicity in the United States and the Soviet Union, SUNY Press, 2001, Betty N. Hoffman, page 106). The Jews and Scots have many common traits. That is due to the fact that Levi kept the ministry of the Temple. It was their occupation. When the Jews came back to the promised land, they retained that knowledge, and carried it on. So when you compare the two together, and see the similarities, it is quite astonishing to see, when the Scots were with out that knowledge, but retained it by it being passed on, generation to generation, while the Jews did it by the knowledge of the Bible.

Scottish Tartans

Only the Scottish Tartans are meant as a national significance. It is universally associated with Scotland. People in Ulster, Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and elsewhere dress in tartan on ceremonial occasions in order to demonstrate an ancestral association with Scotland and the Scottish. "But only in Scotland has tartan been taken to such a high art form and imbued with cultural significance. ## WAS THE KILT INVENTED IN AUSTRIA? (NO!)" (

Nachmanides associates the "Cotonet Pasim" of Joseph with the "Cotonet Tashbets" [Tashbets meaning of interlocking squares, i.e. a garment with a tartan-type design] of the High Priest in the Temple Service (Exodus 28:4). "And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, [Hebrew: "cotonet tashbets"] a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office."

The Temple Institute, Jerusalem Source: "Mishkan HaShem" S.R.Hirsch they are the national colors of Israel.

Israel in Egypt

Scottish Highlander

Now that we have identified the Scots as Levites. Have they fulfilled these prophecies?

The Scots are "scattered in Israel." There are Scottish people all over the Commonwealth of England. In Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa.

Many of the Scots are teachers, preachers, and pastors, and are biblical scholars and professors. "The Scots were once noted for theological hairsplitting and philosophizing-like many Talmudically trained Jews" (The Tribes, Davidy, p.294). Scotland is known for its ministers. The July, 1989 issue of “Israel My Glory,” a Jewish focused publication, had this to say about the Scots. “The tiny nation of Scotland has given the world many things...Unfortunately one of Scotland's greatest contributions is often overlooked. Scotland has probably produced more missionaries in proportion to her population than any other nation on earth..."(Robert A. Peterson, emphasis added). So the Scots have the gift of the ministry.

"Bless, LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands: smite through the loins of them that rise against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again." Did God "bless" Scotland's substance?

The Scots are the most inventive people on earth! Books such as

“Some citadels of global capitalism – Montreal, Hong Kong, Calcutta, Singapore – owe their existence largely to Scots, who have seldom been absent from any of the others either ... Some diaspora belongs to the history of a people who have always been inventive, energetic, adaptable and mobile”. (The Scottish Empire, Michael Fry 2001: 390)

In both Australia and New Zealand educated Ulster Scots were providing a remarkable proportion of the professional people – doctors, lawyers, engineers – on which the new colonial societies were built … [they were] a distinct racial group … A people who in many ways were the epitome of mobility and change” (God’s Frontiersmen. The Scots-Irish Epic, Fitzpatrick, p.3). Once Union with England occurred, they had an outlet for these immense pent-up energies. Now they had access to the Empire’s vast marketplace. Out of all proportion to their numbers, they supplied large numbers of sailors, soldiers, colonists, administrators and engineers for the Empire.

A recent book on the subject of Scottish genius and creativity, is Stewart Lamont’s When Scotland Ruled the World – a celebration of Scotland’s overwhelmingly dominant capacity for inventiveness and administration. Lamont argues that while the Scots are few in number, their influence has been absolutely massive on the world stage.

The book is arranged into chapters on men of science, their influence in North America, writers, pioneers, medicine, prime ministers and such like. Within each chapter he presents a biography of the major Scottish contributors to world civilization. In the final chapter The Scots Psyche, he makes some very interesting observations and I list some below:

What about "smit[ing] through the loins of them that rise against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again"?

In 1609 many Scots returned to northern Ireland and the southern Irish were replaced in the Great Plantation as it became known. These became known as the Ulster Scots. These emigrated in significant numbers to the United States. Scotch-Irish is a traditional term for Ulster Scots who later emigrated to what is now the United States; "Scots-Irish" is a more recent form of the American term, and is not to be confused with Irish-Scots, i.e., recent Irish immigrants to Scotland. (Merriam-Webster dictionaries). This distinction must be made clear that these Ulster Scots were all Scots/Levi because it is these Scotch-Irish in the USA that contribute to the American Revolution and the fulfillment of the above prophecy of Moses.

"...the American War of Independence … One contemporary summed up the whole revolution as ‘an Irish-Scotch Presbyterian Rebellion...‘Call it not an American Rebellion, it is nothing more nor less than an Irish-Scots Presbyterian Rebellion’– Captain Johann Heinricks, German mercenary serving with the British c.1780 ’'' (God’s Frontiersmen. The Scots-Irish Epic by Rory Fitzpatrick, p.2).

The American Founding Fathers have a lot to be grateful to the Scots. In America's Founding Secret. What the Scottish Enlightenment Taught Our Founding Fathers, Robert W. Galvin argues that the contributions of Scottish migrants to America have been neglected. Their influence on America’s political culture is now, at last, being acknowledged.

He tracks their influence back to the Scottish Enlightenment which was based around the Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities. Galvin shows that both the people and works that came out of that Enlightenment found their way into American colonies which influenced greatly those that founded the new Republic. Indeed, many of their actual philosophies and words may be found in the constitutions of the United States and many of the State governments as well as in the Declaration of Independence.

George Washington himself said of those troops of his which were of Ulster origin: “If defeated everywhere else, I will make my last stand amongst the Scots- Irish of the native Virginia.” The American rebellion against the British, the Scot-Irish "smote" the British (them that hate him), and the British did not rise "again" but America became its own country.

Robert the Bruce is another episode in history, where the English "rise against him."  Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation, and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero. Peace was finally concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to superiority over Scotland. England did not "rise" again against him, and Scotland became independent.

Future of Levi

The Tribe of Levi will repent and mourn when Christ returns. (Zech 12:12). The Sons of Levi are the first tribe that Jesus will purify, "But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' sope:

"And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness." (Mal 3:2-23). As Zacharias prophesied, that the sons of Levi "might serve Him in holiness and righteousness before Him all the days of our life.” The Cohens who do not believe, those Scots that fell away from the Faith, they will mourn, and repent, and Jesus will wash away their sins and be purified, so they can serve the Lord in his Kingdom. "But upon mount Zion shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; and the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions....And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame...And saviours shall come up on mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau; and the kingdom shall be the LORD'S." (Obadiah 1:17, 18, 21).

12,000 Levites of the 144,000 that will be on Mt Zion with Christ (Rev 7; 14:1). These will rule with Christ in the Kingdom. 12,000 of the Scots and Cohens will be part of the great Exodus to bring the rest of the Israelites back to Palestine (Isaiah 11). As Psalmist said, "Bless the LORD, O house of Levi: ye that fear the LORD, bless the LORD. " (Psalms  135:20).